To feel the meaning of what one is doing, and to rejoice in that meaning: to unite in one concurrent fact the unfolding of the inner life and the ordered development of material conditions - that is art. (Dewey, 1906/1977, p. 292)
The arts encompasses a variety of areas of study that branch out further than simply just the fine and performing arts. Art education includes: painting, sculpting, writing poetry, playing an instrument, singing, dancing, acting, creating mixed media productions, and film-making. However the arts can extend out to include stone and ice sculpting, culinary arts, and music appreciation. However the domestic arts such as sewing, knitting, embroidery, quilting, carpentry and metalwork, must also be considered as components of an arts education (Upitis, 2011 ). Regardless of the area of study within the arts, all artistic pursuits have at their heart a passion for learning which results in creative expressions of ones self.

Almost all facets of the arts have historical roots that go back thousands of years. Primitive flutes have been discovered from 40,000 years ago, early cave paintings have been dated back 35,000 years and the Ancient Greeks have been performing plays for 5000 years. The arts have survived well before technology, yet that does not mean that there is not an opportunity for TPACK analysis and framework to be implemented within a modern arts curriculum. The arts provides ample opportunity to integrate technology into a students artistic experience. Effective implementation of the TPACK analysis can result in an enriched exploration of the arts for the arts student.

In applying the TPACK framework to arts education arts teachers have a host of new technologies available to them (Tablets, Web 2.0 tools, Digital Media Technologies, Interactive Whiteboards, Document Cameras). These technologies can best be used to enhance a teacher’s current pedagogical practices to help bring traditional art forms and creation techniques into the 21st century. The technologies, in conjunction with sound pedagogical practice help to reinforce traditional arts content with a well thought out plan for technology integration using the TPACK analysis and framework.



What is Arts Education?

arts.jpg

According to the National Art Education Association, Art Education is broken down into three main components: Work, Language and Values.

Work: Art allows the value of work to be learned. Through art the meaning of joy of work-work done to the best of one's ability, for its own sake, for the satisfaction of a job well done is reinforced.

Language: Art is a language of visual images that affect our needs, our daily behaviour, our hopes, our opinions, and our ultimate ideals. Art Education stimulates language-spoken and written-about visual images

Values: Art allows values to be explored. Values that encompass home and family, work and play, the individual and society, nature and the environment, war and peace, beauty and ugliness, violence and love. Arts education exposes the learner to expressions of a wide range of human values and concerns. http://www.arteducators.org/advocacy/why-art-education#sthash.PmdBmJVI.dpuf











Being an Arts Educator with TPACK
Knowledge required as a music instructor:
  • Knowledge of the content: Given how hands-on music is, an educator must be well-versed in a variety of different styles in order to competently communicate what students should be doing or even how students should be doing it.
  • Knowledge of pedagogy: Music can be presented one-on-one, in small groups, or in large groups, and it is important to understand the teaching dynamic involved with each. Further, one should understand the various learning styles of a wide range of students to accommodate each learner best.
  • Knowledge of technology: Music is moving more and more toward the digital realm. Educators should have the awareness of the various technology students are using with music as well as familiarize themselves with how to integrate it into their teaching to allow students to stay current in the digital age of music.
  • Knowledge of students: It is extremely important educators have an understanding of what affects their students and how in order to engage them and earn their trust. Music is a dynamic and often emotional discipline which requires students engage their entire body in the process. An educator must have a working knowledge of their students' likes and dislikes and be able to read them.







Benefits of TPACK in Arts Instruction
  • In using technology for creative pursuits, teachers can introduce and reinforce concepts that have been previously introduced by more traditional teaching methods, and in doing so adapt the concepts to the various needs of all their students. (National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education, 2015)
  • Combining the arts with technology can create new and exciting ways to keep students motivated and engaged in the learning process and the world around them (National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education, 2015).
  • Teachers can help reduce learning barriers by working arts curriculum and technology into students' individualized education programs (IEPs) and the general curriculum (National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education, 2015).
  • Computer graphics programs in particular can provide alternative avenues for creative expression, and when coupled with overall classroom software application, use and retention of knowledge and skills (through repetitive movement and software training, for example), can result in students retaining the ability and knowledge to use alternative input devices — often up to two full years after initial use. (Hutinger, 1998).
  • Arts education allows for innovative and imaginative development of ideas by establishing, creating and fostering an environment that supports expressive development of self by learning more about art as a way of seeing and experiencing the world, culture and people. (Lemon, 2011)
  • When given the opportunity to use Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in their creative work, elementary students have demonstrated increased motivation, self-regulation, pride, and inventiveness – particularly in situations involving creative expression or composition. (Upitis, 2011)
  • Current and developing digital technologies hold the promise of a more musical culture and society, allowing everyone to learn and be active music participants throughout their lives. (Bauer, 2014)














TPACK Related Arts Links

This wiki was started in 2011 as part of a ISTE poster presentation on TPACK and the arts.

This wiki is designed to "operationalize TPACK" using curriculum-based learning activity types ('LATs'), teaching strategies, and performance assessments.


Drama

Blogger
Students can blog in character while preparing for a role, or report on events to help with scene and script development

Scenepartner
An app to assist students in memorizing lines from published works or original scripts.

Wix
Students can create digital portfolios for themselves as actors.

YouTube
Video sharing software for actors to publish their reels or where new playwrights can demonstrate their works off of the page.

Open Source Shakespeare
A collection of all of William Shakespeare's plays online, which includes other resources, such as the option to search plays by character.


Music

Jamstudio
Mix and create digital audio tracks to create unique music;

Rock Our World
This online international project connects students from all over the globe to compose music, make movies and interact with each other in live video conferences.

Garageband
Play, mix and record your own songs. Then share them — across the room or across the globe — with just a few taps

Ultimate list of Online Music Education Games
Online music education games are organized into the following categories: aural training, composers, composition, instruments, notation, symbols/vocabulary and variety.

iScore
A Web-based practice and communication tool. It is designed to help motivate students to take responsibility for their practising and overall music learning and music creation.

Noteflight
A web-based music notation program, with free and paid options. It is a viable alternative to professional grade music notation programs for beginners and students.

Soundation
A free online music creation tool that allows users to make simple and complicated looping beats and rhythms. A good tool for the beginning composer or musician.

Khan Academy
Online activities for learning theory and musicality, classical compositions, and various instruments.



Visual Arts

Art Project by Google
An online platform through which the public can access high-resolution images of artworks housed in the initiative’s partner museums

Artrage
This is a fun, easy-to-learn program for experimenting with digital art with an easy-to-use interface.

Artweaver
ArtWeaver features a number of natural media brushes and tools such as chalk, pencils, charcoal, oil paint, felt markers, crayons, airbrushes, acrylic, sponges, and pastels.

Deleter CG Illust
A good resource for students who is into the Anime and Manga illustration style of Japanese comics.

Destination Modern Art
From the Museum of Modern Art, this interactive online website speaks to students about art.

Google Collections
Take a Google street view style tour of hundreds of museums big and small.

Sketchup7
A free download from Google, this 3D design program allows users to create imaginary cities, buildings, or recreate existing ones.

The Art Zone
Sponsored by the National Gallery of Art, this interactive site currently hosts 16 art programs that educate and engage students of all ages.

TuxPaint
This open source drawing program is a free download that works well on nearly all platforms.



TPACK Arts Lesson Plan



This lesson plan describes how students used Podcasting (T) to record Readers Theatre scripts with the primary pedagogy being differentiated instruction (P). Through the reading, writing, and rehearsal of these Readers Theatre Scripts, students overall literacy performance (C) would be addressed.

https://docs.google.com/a/umich.edu/document/d/1p8Db3kIBsPHoH90g0oxeWBbifLkLaPoRsFD0nH8lyvs/edit?usp=sharing

This is lesson 1 of 3. It outlines a webquest that is completed with blogging that will lay the foundation for a character blogging unit plan. The lesson uses Digital Media Literacy (C) with Active Learning (P) and webquests (T).

https://docs.google.com/a/umich.edu/document/d/13e6JhU4RrpxnoEz1QcZPWeRYQ76YbWT3eSeyj5f8iHQ/edit?usp=sharing

This is lesson 2 of 3. It uses (C) Blog creation and design with (P) Active Learning and (T) Personal Computing devices. This lesson sees the students using Blogger to create and design their character blogs.

https://docs.google.com/a/umich.edu/document/d/1ZZUDQw9_c_BqFY7XIbju5qPKAZO7l6ZxOHWTPMYbnTA/edit?usp=sharing

This is lesson 3 of 3 and uses (C) writing in role with (P) Collaborative and Cooperative Learning and (T) Blogging to get the students not only writing in role, but writing and responding in role to their peers, based on their knowledge of the plots, themes, characters and elements of the play they have read.

https://docs.google.com/a/umich.edu/document/d/1iEXYavQ9QYd4TTmMKt5ZlBfMNQyML9-_hftr7bbpPw0/edit?usp=sharing

This lesson details the use of music notation software to aid in the transcribing of music to improve aural skills.

https://drive.google.com/open?id=1ILsdB9e8ClQ-YW5BjG142Ify7HudewKQr3gyMbNfWnM

This lesson details the use of YouTube to aid students in the interpretation of the music of vocal singers.


Using vector design software, students create a brand for use on a package. They create a combination logo focusing on a specific target market.
T: Adobe Illustrator (main technology,) Aaron Draplin video
C: Create a brand for a product from rough ideas to final vector full color/black & white versions.
P: Lecture facilitated, project based learning, the student is responsible for name of brand and all illustrations used.


This is a large unit where students use the project management software called Basecamp to organize and create a sports guide for their high school.
C: Page layout to create a multipage magazine
P: Collaborative learning
T: Basecamp project management software (main technology,) Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Lightroom, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe InDesign, and DSLR Cameras


Students use YouTube as a tool with which to assess themselves and their peers through uploading videos of themselves performing.
C: Interpretation
P: Self Assessment
T: Video Recording, YouTube

Fully-Developed TPACK Lesson Plans Using Movie-Making Projects
Here is a website that has more than 100 lesson plans for various project-based learning projects using movie-making software. It offers skills that cannot be otherwise garnered save participation in these types of projects.
http://www.cmslearns.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/TPACK-Lesson-Plan-Template-1.pdf


References

Dewey, J. (1906/1977). Essays on the New Empiricism 1903–1906. The middle works of John Dewey (Vol. 3, J. A. Boydston, Ed.). Carbondale, IL: Southern University Press.

Hutinger, P., Johanson, J., & Rippey, R. M. (2000). Benefits of a comprehensive technology system in an early childhood setting: Results of a three-year study. Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood, Western Illinois University.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2008). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators. New York and London: Routledge.

Lemon, N (2011). Tapping into Classroom Practice of the Arts: From Inside Out. Mt Gravatt, Australia: Post Pressed.

National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education (2015). Integrating the Arts with Technology: Inspiring Creativity. retrieved March 30, 2015, from LD Online Web Site:__http://www.ldonline.org/article/30245/__

Upitis, Rena (June 2011). Arts Education for the Development of the Whole Child. retrieved April 1, 2014, from http://www.etfo.ca/Resources Web Site:
http://www.etfo.ca/Resources/ForTeachers/Documents/Arts%20Education%20for%20the%20Development%20of%20the%20Whole%20Child.pdf

Bauer, W (2014). Music Learning and Technology.
http://nd.music.msu.edu/music-learning-technology-william-bauer/