wiki_book3.JPGWhat is Literacy:
Literacy is simply the ability to read and write at an acceptable level. However, the complication comes from knowing what is currently satisfactory and being able to teach your students so they can achieve this status.

They say that the first school for every child is the home.For this reason, it is imperative that the home introduces the child with letters before they head off to school. This teaching should also include letter recognition and basic phonetics and the connection between both. Research has proven time and time again that children who are exposed to such learning have a wider range of vocabulary to describe their thoughts, emotions, and observations. Such behavior can lead to academic success in the early years.

K-6 literacy is highly complex and the relationships between technology, pedagogy and content are extremely dynamic. The use of technology in literacy/language arts has changed the way both teachers and students read, create and interpret the information that they are looking at. Literacy has evolved from reading a book from left to right, looking for bold words that denote important information, and subject changes or section breaks to reading a website, clicking on highlighted underlined words and following a hyperlink to additional information, scanning and interpreting a graph, watching a video clip or listening to a podcast on their topic. This evolution has changed the way students read and how teachers must teach them to read. With the rise of standardized testing on computers, teaching students to read on technological devices is necessary in today's society.
There are five areas that all literacy teachers must possess and continually improve. They are foundational knowledge, instructional strategies and curriculum materials, assessment/diagnosis/evaluation, creating a literate environment, and professional development. In order to develop students critical literacy and media skills, literacy teachers must have a thorough understanding of the content knowledge required to help them learn to read and write. Then they must choose which technology components (TPACK) will enhance this learning. These choices are based on his/her perceptions of the value that technology will have on instructional practices, classroom context, and the students' learning. The ultimate choice is made, however, by the teacher as he/she sees that students are more motivated and seem to have a great sense of control over what they can access and read when they use technology such as word processing software, programs that rely on hypertext and hypermedia, and Internet searches to increase literacy skills.

external image TPACK.jpg

TPACK and K-6 Literacy:
Content Knowledge (CK):
A thorough understanding of literacy content is extremely important when teaching students to read and write. There are five main areas that are encompassed in literacy:
  1. Language structure(phonemic awareness and phonics)
    • Phonemic Awareness: Is the knowledge that words are made up of a combination of individual sounds; it is more than recognizing sounds. It also includes the ability to hold on to those sounds, blend them successfully into words, and take them apart again.
    • Phonics: Is the relationship between a specific letter and its sound, only as it relates to the written word. If a child learns to identify the relationship between the sounds of our language and letters, he/she will have an easier time identifying words, leading to improved reading comprehension. Failure to master phonics is one reason why children have difficulty learning to read.
  2. Vocabulary (word recognition)
    • When children learn to read, they begin to understand that the words on the page correspond to the words they encounter every day in spoken English. Children increase their vocabulary through both direct and indirect instruction.
    • Children continually learn new words indirectly through listening and speaking to the people around them, being read to by others, and reading on their own. Sometimes children need to be taught new words explicitly, especially when they are crucial to their understanding of a story or concept.
  3. Comprehension (all genres of text)
    • Text comprehension is the interaction that happens between reader and text.
    • Strategies to support comprehension:
      • Monitoring comprehension: Successful readers know when they understand a passage and when they don’t. When they don’t understand, they know to pause and utilize strategies to improve understanding.
      • Using prior knowledge: Thinking about what is already known about the subject helps readers make connections between the story and their current knowledge.
      • Making predictions: Good readers often make predictions as they read through a story, using both the knowledge they bring to a text as well as what they can derive from the text.
      • Questioning: When children ask questions about what they read and search for answers, they are interacting with the text to construct meaning. Good questions are based on a child’s knowledge base and what information he/she desires.
      • Recognizing story structure: Children will understand a story better if they understand how it is organized (i.e., setting, plot, characters, and themes).
      • Summarizing: When summarizing a story, readers determine the main idea and important information and use their own words to demonstrate a understanding of the text.
  4. Fluency (reading attitude, conventions, and discourse)
    • Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly.
    • Since fluency depends on higher word recognition skills, it helps children move from decoding words to sight-reading. This means less energy is spent on deciphering and more is spent on comprehending.
    • Repeated oral reading is the best way for children to improve their fluency. This can include re-reading a familiar tex, listening to models of fluent reading, or engaging in choral, or unison reading.
  5. Composition (grammar and usage, spelling, handwriting, and writing attitude)
    • Practice in writing helps children build their reading skills.
    • Giving children their choice in writing is an effective way to motivate students.

Although other areas exist, these five are prevalent in many educator programs.

ccss circle.jpg
Common Core State Standards (CCSS):
Reading: Literature
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6

Reading: Informational Text
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6

Reading: Foundational Skills
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5

Early Childhood Standards of Quality ELE:

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK):
The methods in which a teacher educates is based on personal experience, classroom setting, and individual students abilities. Literacy motivation and assessment also play an important role. In order to teach, the students' literacy skills they need to have a valued interest and the teacher needs to identify the current level.

The objective is to reach children by empowering their minds and sparking their interest when instructing. Since children learn from being actively involved in the learning process, educators need to ensure the content allows children to make personal connections with material connecting relevancy to their lives. If the content makes sense to learners, children will retain the information, enhancing their knowledge in the content area.
external image 8850622.png?709
Reading motivation occurs by providing the student with goals, allowing the student to choose their own goals, providing interesting text for the readers, allowing self-chosen texts along with assigned texts, using verbal praise, providing opportunities for students to collaborate, holding group discussions, and providing opportunities for students to share/write their thoughts.

Some strategies teachers utilize to accomplish this goal are in using KWL charts, (what children know about the content, what they want to know, and what children want to learn about the content) during Large Group discussion. Another strategy teachers use to build on the KWL chart from children's input is the integration of technology into the lesson planning using a Learning Management Systems or (LMS). By using a LMS, teachers can use various tools to enhance individual student learning,as students are encouraged to access helpful links which build on student knowledge added by the teacher. Each student's learning can be individualized as teacher's can view student work, and revise instruction or enhance more components based on assessment of students. Most LMS systems allow students to work independently and upload pictures of their work showing authentic learning.


Assessments allow both student and educator to form a more detailed understanding of the student's abilities, inabilities, strengths, and weaknesses to develop a better and more comprehensive instructional strategy!

Teachers utilize informal and formal assessments to assess student performance in literacy. Informal assessments are completed through gathering a broader and meaningful picture of development of student’s knowledge or growth in learning content. Teachers achieve this by observing students play, asking open ended questions, taking anecdotal notes, and by using photographs of student work engaging students verbally in knowledge of content. By doing an authentic assessment, teachers are able to meet children where they are developmentally and identify students who show knowledge of concepts and those who may need further guidance. Formal assessments are based on data collected from tests that compare student performance to a standardized measure of success (Weaver, 2018). These include things like running records, MLPP assessments, and standardized test performance. Formal assessments give teachers an idea of the age or grade level a student is performing at in regard to literacy. It is important that teachers use both formal and informal assessments when measuring student success in literacy because neither gives the full picture. Teachers know that student performance on standardized tests is not always a true indication of student ability; likewise how they read on a given day may not reflect how they read most days.

Teachers utilize formal assessments by using a online assessment tools like Child Observation Records or (COR) and Teaching Strategies Gold.
HighScope Child Observation Record (COR), COR Advantage, is an observation assessment tool designed for use with children aged 2 years 6 months to 6 years in early childhood settings, including preschools, child care, and Head Start programs. COR Advantage charts children's development and progress over time.

Teaching Strategies GOLD is a seamless system for assessing children from birth through kindergarten. Extensive field tests have shown it to be both valid and reliable. Available online and in print, the system can be used with any developmentally appropriate early childhood curriculum. Although assessments are based on knowledge of content, evaluations are a resource for guiding instruction and helps support the pedagogical methods of an educator.

The Michigan Literacy Progress Profile (MLPP) are literacy assessments designed for students up to third grade to document student growth in literacy. These include reading, writing, and speaking components of literacy. Young students start with assessments that measure phonemic awareness, concepts of print, letter/sound recognition, sight words, and hearing/recording sounds. Using these assessments consistently early in a child's school career can help identify problem areas that need to be focused on. Addressing these areas early on can help ensure that students have a successful future as a reader, writer, and speaker.

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) is a standardized reading test used to determine a student’s instructional level in reading. DRA testing targets nine categories of reading behavior and six types of reading errors. Those targeted assessments are rhyming, alliteration, segmenting, phonetic awareness, letter naming, word-list reading, spelling, decoding, analogies, structural analysis, syllabication, oral fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and engagement. Teachers and/or reading specialists administer the DRA individually to students. Students read a selection from the book and then must retell what they have read to the person administering the test, based on the specific instructions for each DRA level. DRA is usually administered to students in grades K-5, in September and May. This form of assessment can help teachers plan ahead for lessons, guided-reading instruction, intervention, and supplement support. The teacher uses the results from the individualized student scores, along with other forms of assessment to determine whether his/her students at reading on, above, or below grade level. DRA reading levels range from level A to level 44, and in some cases up to level 50.


Assessment Resources:

Technological Knowledge (TK):
Studies have shown that integrating technology into the teaching of literacy has increased children's motivation and desire to learn to read and strengthened their comprehension skills. Teachers who incorporate technology have discovered that they have altered their instructional models to accommodate the technology for literacy learning. They use more student-centered models of instruction such as the items listed below:external image ipadin%20classroom.jpg

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in Literacy:

Schmidt and Gurbo summarize Shulman’s idea of PCK as it pertains to literacy by stating “…PCK relates to literacy-it is the ability of a teacher to transform content knowledge (i.e. language structure, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and composition) in pedagogically powerful ways (i.e. teaching strategies, lesson plan development and implementation, classroom management, student assessment) that adapt to students’ abilities and backgrounds in a classroom context.” (p. 64) When thinking about PCK, you should choose a teaching method that is appropriate for the content you want your students to learn.

PCK Methods (applied and altered based on students diverse background)
*for English Language Learners it is suggested that books in the native language(s) also be made available


PCK Components (used daily in various situations)
  • Teach literacy as a developmental continuum
  • Apply appropriate teaching methods and strategies while considering the diversity of learners and individual differences
  • Create a supportive literacy environment that increase learners’ engagement
  • Motivate students to read
  • Select and use a wide range of strategies and tools for assessment

Technical Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) in Literacy:
According to Koehler and Mishra, TPK is an understanding of "how teaching and learning can change when particular technologies are used in particular ways (2009)." When integrating technology to teach literacy, the methods require the student to take more responsibility for their learning by allowing them to contribute and collaborate in numerous ways. According to this website, "Technology improves student performance when the application directly supports the curriculum objectives being assessed." The technology should enhance the teaching process and diversify learning so that your visual/spacial, kinesthetic, linguistic, and auditory learners are all actively engaged.

In order for teachers to successfully use technology teachers must have training. As noted in the study done by Pilgrim and Martinez, "opportunities for technology integration and reflection benefited teachers. Professional development should utilize a mentoring model in which teachers who are skilled in instructional technology are available to guide an iterative process of planning, execution, feedback, and continued planning. More robust training and assistance with planning could include the improvement of previously prepared content specific lesson plans. Technology integration with Web literacy skills requires a more student-centered approach to instruction. Implementing a new learning method requires the teacher to approach classroom instruction differently" (p. 144).

A decade ago literacy was have been defined as the ability to read and write. Today literacy can take on more than one meaning. It can mean that students are digital literate, or braille literate, but not necessarily literate in the traditional form. Reading and writing have developed dramatically over the years, students with disabilities can learn to read and write without verbally communicating to an adult through iPads. These assistive technologies such as audio books, electronic math worksheets, word processors, and speech synthesizers, can be utilized within the classroom to encourage learning.

Although training is necessary for teachers to properly use technology in their classrooms, they are not always offered through their employers. While this is the best option, teachers sometimes have to take training into their own hands. Massive open online courses, or MOOCs, are free online courses that almost anyone can enroll in to learn a variety of skills. MOOCs related to educational technology are ideal for teachers who want to learn about technology without spending a lot of their own money.

MOOCs Related to Educational Technology

Technical Content Knowledge (TCK) in Literacy:
Introducing software word processing tools, as simple as word pad, or as complex as Word 2007, has changed the teaching and learning of composition and the art of writing. These programs actually made the writing process easier, especially the editing and revising components. They also changed the teacher's role from being the grammar and mechanics of writing authority yielding a red pen, to being the facilitator of drawing out a child's thoughts and visions into word form on the computer.
Listed below are some of the benefits of using a word processing program (TCK) with writing:

  • longer written samples
  • greater variety of word usage
  • variety of sentence structure
  • more accurate mechanics and spelling (they use Spellchecker!)
  • more substantial revision
  • greater responsiveness to teacher and peer feedback
  • better understanding of the writing process
  • more positive attitudes towards writing

Along with writing, their are other technological sources that provide literacy content such as reading, listening, viewing, and speaking. Into the Book is a website that practices eight reading strategies (visualizing, summarizing, synthesizing, making connections, prior knowledge, inferring, evaluating, and questioning). Each strategy can be viewed separately or there is an option to work through all eight strategies together. These strategies are supported by short videos, animation, and automated voice.
external image digitalwordcloud2.png

When it comes to dealing with pre-literacy skills and teaching younger students, it is still important to keep their interests by using technology and by having meaningful interactions with their environment. “Learning to recognize letters is an integral part of most kindergarten programs. The challenge is to keep students interest while they are practicing until they are fluent”. (Duffelmeyer, 2002). Similarly, research also shows that, "Alphabet instruction should be supported by multiple opportunities to interact with letters in a variety of settings" (Duffelmeyer, 2002). Thus proving using technology in the classroom would be very beneficial. Making room for technology in an early childhood classroom is more beneficial than it may seem. “In order for students to emerge as 21st century learners, introducing them to technology, and specifically to using a tablet for learning, may be beneficial to them”, (Giugni, 2015).
When choosing a particular technology for your literacy lesson, it is important to consider the availability of the technology, the affordability, and the students experience. Whatever technology source is chosen, it should be a best fit for the content being taught.
TCK Resources:

Activities and Other Educational Resources:

Technical Pedagogical And Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Literacy:
external image 3105191883_45ab24aca3_o_d.png
Finally, TPACK is putting all of the pieces (CK, PK, TK, PCK, TCK) together to plan and facilitate a learning environment in which K-6 students use elements of technology as tools and are actively engaged in learning literacy. Individual teachers can learn to do this on their own, but it is the ultimate responsibility of Teacher Education Schools to critically examine their current preparation programs and come up with models and solutions that will successfully train pre-service and in-service teachers to efficiently and seamlessly integrate technology into their everyday classroom instruction. Some suggested strategies are providing one-on-one technology mentors to educators, continuous modeling of effective TPACK within teacher education courses, providing plenty of "hands-on" practical technology integration for pre-service teachers, and facilitating continuous communication and feedback opportunities for pre-service teachers to increase their knowledge and understanding of TPACK.

TPACK varies from classroom to classroom and teacher to teacher. What works for one teacher may not work for another. One of the best resources teachers have to learning how to integrate TPACK into their teaching is other teachers. Collaborating on lessons, sharing ideas, and attending professional development together are great ways for teachers to learn from each other and bring innovative ideas into their classroom. While it is ultimately up to the individual teacher to decide what technology they will use and how they will use it, the help and knowledge of other teachers should never be overlooked.

Overall, teachers need to know the following to effectively use technology to help foster early literacy:
  • specific software applications and/or hardware with added value for developing early literacy,
  • features of effective technology with added value for developing early literacy,
  • guidelines for effective uses of technology for developing early literacy

Sample TPACK Lesson Plans for K-6 Literacy:

The attached lesson plan demonstrates how a literacy lesson can be modified and adapted to incorporate the elements of TPACK.

Summary of the lesson:
The Content (C) is Elements of Myths which covers the 5th grade Common Core State Standards RL.5.7 and RL.5.2.
The Pedagogy (P) is cooperative learning in a small group setting.
The Technology (T) is Bitstrips (comics).

Summary of the lesson:
The Content (C) is a online book discussion which uses literature through student blogging grades K-3
based on
MDE Early Childhood Standards of Quality ELE:LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT 1. Early Learning Expectation:
The Pedagogy (P) is group discussions.
The Technology (T) is edublogs
Summary of lesson:

Summary of lesson:

Summary of the lesson:
The Content (C) is main topic and identifying key details which covers the 1st grade Common Core State Standards RI.1.2 and RI.1.10
The Pedagogy (P) is direct instruction in a small and whole group setting.
The Technology (T) is Kidspiration software which students will use to create a web.

Summary of the Lesson:
The Content (C) is letter identification (for 4-5 year olds in a pre-K program or Kindergarten class).
The Pedagogy (P) is active learning in small group setting.
The Technology (T) is iPads (specifically, the camera app).

Summary of the Lesson:
The Content (C) is the Life cycle of insects.
The Pedagogy (P) is inquiry-based learning.
Technology (T) is a interactive whiteboard.

Summary of the Lesson: This is an example of a kindergarten TPACK foundational literacy lesson.
The Content (C) is rhyming words.
The Pedagogy (P) is game- based learning.
The Technology (T) is an interactive whiteboard.

Summary of the lesson: This is an example of a kindergarten TPACK foundational literacy lesson.
The Content (C) is sight word identification.
The Pedagogy (P) is game-based learning.
The Technology (T) is iPads.

Summary of the Lesson: This is an example of a Preschool TPACK foundational literacy lesson.
The Content (C) is practicing letter identification and sounds (phonics).
The Pedagogy (P) is active learning.
The Technology (T) is the smart board and YouTube.

Summary of the lesson:
The Content (C) is improving reading fluency
The Pedagogy (P) is guided reading
The Technology (T) is Read Naturally Live, a computer-based reading program

Summary of Lesson: This is an example of a 1st grade lesson for building literacy through Raz-Kids.
The Content is comprehension and vocabulary identification and fluency.
The Pedagogy is independent learning.
The Technology is the Raz-Kids application.
TPACK Literacy Lesson

Summary of Lesson: In third grade, we do lots of comparing and contrasting across curriculum. Students are also required to use technology to produce writing. This lesson will incorporate nonfiction reading, social studies, writing, and technology. Students study Michigan's two peninsulas using nonfiction text. Then, students will use an interactive whiteboard to compare and contrast Michigan's two peninsulas using graphic organizers. Lastly, students will compose an essay on the similarities and differences of Michigan's two peninsulas using Google Docs on classroom Chromebooks. This lesson will take place over an extended period of time.
Content (C) - Michigan's Two Peninsulas
Pedagogy (P) - Multi-sensory learning
Technology (T) - Interactive Whiteboard, Google Docs, and Chromebooks

Summary of Lesson: In third grade, students are required to use technology to produce writing and conduct research to create a report. This lesson will incorporate nonfiction reading, science, writing, and technology. Students study a unit on the Arctic Region using nonfiction texts and the Internet. The Arctic Region includes geography, plants, animals, climate, people, and the Iditarod. During each lesson, students will use Google Slides to create an electronic "Arctic Notebook". Lastly, students will create an Arctic Animal Report using Google Slides and present it to the class. This lesson will take place over an extended period of time.
Content (C) - The Arctic Region (applying research skills)
Pedagogy (P) - Multi-sensory learning
Technology (T) - Interactive Whiteboard, Document Camera, Google Slides, and Chromebooks

Summary of Lesson: In this first grade lesson, students would work in small groups as part of a "center" or "Daily 5" rotation. Students would be required to use a table to scan a QR code. The code would play an audio clip of a sight word. Students would then need to color in or write down what they heard on an accompanying paper.
Content (C) - Practicing sight word recognition
Pedagogy (P) - Active learning and collaborative learning
Technology (T) - iPads and QR Codes

Summary of Lesson: This early elementary lesson uses the software Kidspiration to have students create a Venn diagram for comparing maps. Students will also use the website Bookflix to listen to the eBook Types of Maps. After hearing the book, students will be expected to organize their ideas of similarities and differences of 2 specific map types on paper. Students will then be assessed on their final product (the Venn diagram) they create using the software Kidspiration on their Chromebooks.
Content (C)- Compare and contrast Types of Maps
Pedagogy (P)- Visual learning
Technology (T)- Bookflix and Kidspiration

Summary of the Lesson: This lesson, "Teaching Alphabetic Knowledge with an Interactive Whiteboard" is designed for a Pre-K or Kindergarten classroom. Within this lesson, students will use an interactive whiteboard (IWB) to play a hands-on, interactive game to learn letters and their sounds.
Content (C): Alphabet knowledge, letter identification and letter sounds
Pedagogy (P): Hands-on and interactive teaching strategy
Technology (T): interactive whiteboard

Summary of the Lesson: This lesson is designed to be used as a read aloud for second or third grade students, although it could be easily adjusted for any age group. The teacher will read A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L'Engle out loud to the class. After listening to the book, students will use their Chromebooks to answer comprehension questions using the game based website Kahoot!. The site allows the teacher to create questions or use preexisting questions based on the topic. Then, in a game show style, the questions are posted on the board for the whole group. Each student can use his/her mobile device (Chromebook) to make his/her answer selection in the time allowed. All results are recorded and shared with the group immediately following each question as well as an overall score after the testing session. Teachers can choose to save the scores in their Google Drive if wanted to keep for further analysis.
Content (C): Ask and answer questions about a fiction story: A Wrinkle in Time
Pedagogy (P): Read Aloud
Technology (T): KAHOOT

Summery of the Lesson: This lesson is for preschool students, where students will practice retelling the story of The Three Little Pigs by listening to the story on YouTube.
Content (C): Literacy-Storytelling (Listening & Comprehension)
Pedagogy (P): Constructivism (Role Play)
Technology (T): YouTube

Summary of the Lesson: This lesson is for 1st-grade students, where students will utilize a webquest relevant to The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein.
Content (C): Conservation of natural resources
Pedagogy (P): Active learning
Technology (T): Webquest

Summary of the Lesson:
This lesson is intended for preschool level students. It is a literacy activity that helps students build their vocabulary, teach segmenting and blending of sounds, and encourage higher-level thinking. The lesson starts off as a whole group activity and breaks up into small group/ individual activity, with transitions.
Content (C) – The content for this lesson is teaching students how to read through rhyming, learning to form connections with word families, and build vocabulary and higher-level thinking.
Pedagogy (P) – The pedagogy of the lesson is reading the story as an interactive read aloud, and forming smaller groups to develop their own reading skills, and listening skills.
Technology (T) – The technology that will be used in this lesson are the class iPads to access the app AbiTalk ABC Phonics Rhyming Bee.

Summary of the Lesson:
This lesson is intended for preschool students. It is a interactive read aloud that will build their vocabulary, build inferences, and encourage higher-level thinking. This lesson is especially useful for children with learning disabilities.
Content (C) – The content for this lesson is learning to form connections, relate the story to real life scenarios, make predictions, and build vocabulary and higher-level thinking.
Pedagogy (P) – The pedagogy of the lesson is reading the story as an interactive read aloud, and forming smaller groups to develop their own reading skills.
Technology (T) – The technology that will be used in this lesson are the class iPads to access the app Epic! for the read-to-me feature.


Australian Educational Computing. Exploring Pedagogy with Interactive Whiteboards in
Australian Schools. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from

Barron, B., Dr., & Darling-Hammond, L., Dr. (n.d.). Teaching for Meaningful Learning: A Review of Research on Inquiry-Based and Cooperative Learning. Edutopia. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from

Bower, V., & Barrett, S. (2014). Rhythm, Rhyme and Repitition. In V. Bower, Developing early literacy 0-8 : from theory edited by Virginia Bower (pp. 118-134). London, England, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.

Colvin, J. & Tomayko, M. (2016). Putting TPACK on the radar: a visual quantitative model for tracking growth of essential teacher knowledge.CITE Journal. Retrieved from

Common Misconceptions of Teaching with Technology. (2015, March 29). Retrieved September 28, 2017, from

Dalrymple, J. (2012). iPad improves kindergarten literacy scores. The Loop. Retrieved from

Davis-Seaver, Jane, et al. Constructivism: A Path To Critical Thinking in Early Childhood.
Retrieved, March 20., 2018 from,,%20Jane%20Constructivism%20A%20Path%20to%20Critical%20Thinking%20In%20Early%20Childhood.pdf

Dreon, O., Kerper, R. M., & Landis, J. (2011). Digital Storytelling: A Tool for Teaching and
Learning in the YouTube Generation. Middle School Journal,42(5), 4-9. doi:10.1080/00940771.2011.11461777. Retrieved March 22, 2018 from,

Duffelmeyer, F. A. (2002). Alphabet activities on the internet. The Reading Teacher,55(7), 631­635.

Farragut Elementary School. (2009) 21st Century Pedagogy. Retrieved from

Fox, B. J. (2008). Rhyme Awareness and Phonemic Awareness. In B. Fox, 100 Activities for Developing Fluent Readers (pp. 3-4). Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall. LINK

Fox, Janie, and Kayla Fox. Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom.
Retrieved March 26, 2018 from,

Gambrell, L. & Marinak, B. (2009) Reading Motivation: What the Research Says. Retrieved from

Gambrell, L. & Marinak, B. (2009) Simple Practices to Nurture the Motivation to Read. Retrieved from

Giugni, C. Giugni (2015), Pre Kindergarten students increased letter recognition ability through the use of educational apps on tablets for classroom instruction.

Grossman, P. L., & Shulman, L. S. (1994). Knowing, Believing, anf the Teaching of English. In T. Shanahan, Teachers Thinking, Teachers Knowing: Reflections on the Literacy and Language Education (pp. 3-22). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. LINK

Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge for teaching and teacher education. (2008). New York, NY: Published by Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.

Hicks, K. (2015, September 2). The Teacher's Guide to Using YouTube in the Classroom.
Retrieved March 24, 2018, from

Hofer, M., & Harris, J. (2015). Developing TPACK with Learning Activity Types. In M. J. Hofer, L. Bell, G. L. Bull, I. Robert Q. Barry, J. D. Cohen, N. Garcia, et al., Practitioner's Guide to Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK): Rich Media Cases of Teacher Knowledge (pp. 144-157). Waynesville, NC: W&M Publish. LINK

Hsu, Chung-Yuan & Liang, J.-C & Su, Y.-C. (2015). The Role of the TPACK in Game-Based
Teaching: Does Instructional Sequence Matter?. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 24.
463-470. 10.1007/s40299-014-0221-2. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (n.d.). An Overview of Cooperative Learning. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from

Johnson, D. & Sulzby, E. (1999) Critical Issue:Adressing the Literacy Needs of Emergent and Early Readers. Retrived from

Khairnar, C.M. (2015). Advance Pedagogy: Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Information and Education Technology 5.11: 869-72. ProQuest.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and
Teacher Education, 9, 60-70. Retrieved from

Kropp, P. & Rog, L. (2001) Hooking Struggling Readers: Using Books They Can and Want to Read. Retrieved from

Marzouk, N. (2008). Building Fluency of Sight Words. Education and Human Development Master’s Theses. Paper 432. Retrieved from

McClure, C. (2008) Motivation and Reading: Creating Early, Engaged Learners. Retrieved from

National Association for the Education of Young Children; Fred Rodgers Center. (2012). Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. Washington, DC, United States. LINK

Norris, C. A., & Soloway, E. (2012, Nov. & dec.). Learning and Schooling in the Age of Mobilism. Retrieved September 28, 2017, from

O'Connell, T. & Strassman, B. (2007) Teaching Tips:Authoring with Video. Retrieved from

Pilgrim, J., & Martinez,, E. (2015). Web Literacy and Technology Integration: Moving Beyond TPACK with Student-Centered Instruction. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 16(2), 121-153. Retrieved April 11, 2017, from

Professional Development Service for Teachers. Interactive Whiteboards-focus on literacy and
numeracy (Primary). (2013). Retrieved March 10, 2018, from

Ripley, A. (2008). Using Technology to Develop Early Phonological Awareness Skills. College at Brockport, Department of Education and Human Development of the State University of New York. Brockport: Digital Common. LINK

Saine, P (2012). iPods, iPads, and the SMARTBoard: Transforming literacy instruction and student learning. New England Reading Association Journal 47 (2), 74-79. Retrieved from

Schmidt, D. & Gurbo, M. (2008) TPCK in K-6 literacy education: It's not that elementary! in AACTE Committee on Innovation and
Technology. Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators (p.61-86). Routledge: New York,

Schacter, J. (n.d.). The impact of education technology on student achievement . Retrieved September 28, 2017, from __

Schroeder, R. (2007). Active Learning with interactive whiteboards. A Literature Review and a Case Study for College Freshmen. 1(2), 64-73. Retrieved from

Smith, G. E., & Throne, S. (n.d.). Differentiating Instruction with Technology in K-5 Classrooms. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from

TeachThought Staff. 6 Basic Benefits Of Game-Based Learning. (2017, September 13).
Retrieved March 10, 2018, from

Voogt, J., & McKenney, S. (2016). TPACK in teacher education: are we preparing teachers to use technology for early literacy? Technology, Pedagogy and Education , 26 (1), 69-83. LINK

Weaver, B. (2018). Formal vs. informal assessments. Retrieved from

Why Do We Need Technology Integration? (2007, November 05). Retrieved September 28,
2017, from __

Back to TPACK within Content Areas pa